These are casual observations from a wildlife enthusiast. I use the term “bark” to describe the sound the cow elk makes to alarm the others. I don’t know if that is an appropriate term or not.
These Roosevelt Elk have calves with them. They don’t like me being out of my vehicle. In hind-site, I probably shouldn’t have stood there so long because I think I might have put them in danger. I saw the calves wandering around until the alpha female sounded the first alarm; which corresponded with her seeing me outside my truck and walking slowly toward the fence. The calves immediately disappeared in the tall grass. As she started walking toward me, “barking”, the others slowly joined her. She was the only one that ever barked (or sounded the alarm).
Then I heard howling off in the distance in the woods up the hill behind me. There were about a dozen cattle in that field but out of my sight at the time. The howling sounded like a lower pitch than coyotes but I am no expert. Unfortunately, my camera didn’t pick up their sound. After a few moments of hearing the howling I heard the ground rumbling. I turned to see the cattle running over the hill toward me. (They were fenced in, and I was close to my truck, so I was in no danger.) As soon as they saw me, they stopped and were all bunched up. Suddenly I felt like the center of attention. It seems that my 15-seconds of fame was with the Tidewater, Oregon, wildlife! And that suits me just fine. I always hope to see wildlife moments, where animals are interacting, but would have felt really bad if I’d been the cause of calling a wolf’s or coyote’s attention to the elk calves.